Polar lands are the areas spreading across the poles. These areas are permanently covered with ice. In the Arctic Circle, ice floats on the surface of the seas and is just a few metres thick. On the other hand, in the Antarctic Circle, ice covers the top of rocky landmasses and at some places it is about 4 km thick.
Because of highly unfavorable conditions, not many animals live in these areas. The animals living here have thick fur, dense feathers or layers of fats to survive the cold.
There is scanty rainfall in the polar regions as the cold air cannot hold much moisture. In winter, the polar regions are completely dark, while in summer, they have sunshine for 24 hours.
The bodies of animals and birds living in polar regions are covered with thick fur, dense feathers and layers of fat.
On the edges of the Polar ecosystems, there are barren landscapes. These landscapes are called Tundra Lands. Here, the ground is covered with lichens and small bushes. The plants growing in Tundra Lands have needle shaped leaves which helps them retain moisture.
Insects such as mosquitoes and blackflies hatch from the eggs laid in soil during the summers. They thrive on big mammals like reindeer, musk, oxen etc. They are food for the birds living here. As there is not too much variety of life in Tundra lands, food webs are simple and can be easily disturbed.
Low variety of life makes the food webs simpler in Tundra lands.