Glaciers are enormous rivers of ice that flow slowly down a mountainside. The Lambert-Fisher Glacier in Antarctica is over 600 kilometres long. It’s the longest glacier in the world. About a tenth of the Earth is covered in icy glaciers.
Why does the sea flow in and out?
Twice a day, the sea washes on to the shore at high tide. Then it flows back out again at low tide. The tides are caused by the Moon and Sun pulling the sea into giant bulges on either side of the Earth.
If all the coasts were straightened out, they’d stretch round the Earth 13 times. At 90,000 kilometres, Canada has the longest coast.
Why are beaches sandy?
Sand is made from tiny fragments of rock and shells, crushed up by the wind and water. Sand is usually yellow or white. But some sand is black because it contains volcanic rock or coal.
How are cliffs carved out?
Along the coast, the rocks are worn away by the force of the waves. As the waves crash against the shore, they carve out cliffs, caves and high arches. Sometimes an arch collapses, leaving a stack, or pillar, of rock.
Is it true?
White horses swim in the sea.
YES. But they’re not real horses. They’re the white, foamy tops of the waves as they gallop towards the shore.
How big is the sea?
The sea is absolutely huge! Salty sea water covers about two-thirds of our planet so there’s far more sea than land. The sea lies in five oceans – the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic and Southern Oceans.
The first person to set sail around the world was Ferdinand Magellan. He set off from Spain in 1519. Magellan died but one of his ships made it back three years later.
Which is the biggest ocean?
By far the biggest ocean is the vast Pacific. It alone covers a third of the
Earth. At its widest point, between Panama and Malaysia, it stretches almost halfway around the world.
Is it true?
The Arctic is the warmest ocean.
- The Arctic’s the coldest ocean of all. For most of the year, it’s covered t” in ice.